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Health & Fitness

Stage 1: Macros vs energy vs parts vs intuitive consuming: What’s one of the best ways to ‘watch what you eat?’

There are some issues nearly everybody is aware of. Take this one: To lose fats, you’ll want to watch what you eat.

Nobody has to rent a coach for that recommendation.

However understanding tips on how to monitor meals consumption? That’s one thing shoppers actually need. Solely it may be onerous to know the most effective strategy.

Some consultants let you know to rely energy or meticulously measure each macro. Others encourage you to estimate parts. Nonetheless others need you to “hearken to your physique.”

Generally it looks as if your complete well being and health business is split.

However guess what? Calorie counting works.

Measuring macros? Additionally works.

Monitoring hand parts? Similar.

Conscious consuming? Intuitive consuming? Yep, these work too.

You get the image: Each technique works. (If carried out effectively.)

The actual query: What’ll work greatest for you (or your shoppers)… proper now?

On this article, we’ll show you how to to find out the simplest method to handle meals consumption, based mostly on private preferences, way of life, and targets. You’ll uncover the solutions to those widespread food-monitoring questions:

Do you really want to rely energy and macros? And if that’s the case, for the way lengthy?
Is monitoring hand parts anyplace close to as correct as weighing and measuring your meals?
Can methods like aware and intuitive consuming actually show you how to lose fats? Or are they overrated?

These solutions can assist you (or your shoppers) lastly get the outcomes you need. And alongside the best way, acquire much more: a wholesome relationship with meals and the abilities that make nutritious consuming appear easy.  

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Most individuals don’t understand how a lot they’re consuming.

Living proof: Analysis exhibits of us typically under-estimate their meals consumption, typically by as a lot as 30 to 50 p.c.1

Two seemingly causes:

1. They don’t understand how calorically-dense many meals will be. Sure, they could know an overflowing plate is a positive method to pack on the kilos. However two slices of meat lover’s pizza earlier than mattress? How dangerous might that be? (Strive 1,000 energy.) 

2. They typically misjudge parts (round two-thirds of the time, the truth is). With no useful reference level, it’s straightforward to by chance eat much more energy than supposed.

Consequently, many individuals battle to acknowledge what number of energy their meals have and fail to eat meals in appropriately-sized parts.

(You’re in all probability not shocked by this.)

There’s a widely known repair, in fact: meals monitoring. Particularly:

Calorie counting
Macro counting
Hand portion monitoring

These strategies act as “exterior guides” that may show you how to eat the appropriate quantities of meals to your physique on the proper intervals. Do this lengthy sufficient and also you’ll start to retrain your physique to higher regulate the hormones that let you know once you’re hungry and full.

You’ll additionally be capable of extra simply modify your calorie and macronutrient consumption, which is essential for altering your physique weight and composition (and even conserving them the identical).

Consider these meals monitoring strategies as dietary coaching wheels.

They provide the steering and calibration you (or your shoppers) want to realize stability by yourself.

Some individuals want these coaching wheels for longer or shorter intervals of time or require a mixture of monitoring methods to search out their stability.

However finally, the objective is to shed your coaching wheels—or exterior guides—and transfer in the direction of understanding what, how a lot, and when to eat with out militant monitoring or monitoring.

As a result of let’s face it: Counting energy and grams is lots of work. And although it may be very useful for brief intervals of time, most individuals don’t wish to do it long run.

That is the place “inside guides” are available in. Particularly, aware consuming and intuitive consuming.

These strategies are essential for serving to you tune into your physique’s urge for food indicators. They show you how to higher sense once you’re actually hungry and to cease consuming when you’re glad. This can be a ability referred to as self-regulation

Infants self-regulate naturally, stopping after they’re full, irrespective of how a lot milk or components is left in a bottle. Most adults, nevertheless, have forgotten tips on how to faucet into this capability. 

Conscious and intuitive consuming can assist you regain this ability. These strategies additionally improve the outcomes you get from meals monitoring. (And vice versa.)

All of which helps you extra simply handle your meals consumption, based mostly on a mixture of:

starvation and fullness cues
dietary information
understanding what works for you individually

That is the place most of us wish to be. However nobody accomplishes this in a single day. It’s a ability that takes apply.

Our information will present you (and your shoppers) tips on how to get there. 

Select the appropriate technique.

Figuring out probably the most acceptable technique comes right down to choosing the right software for the appropriate job.

You are able to do this by asking:

“What drawback does meals monitoring assist me clear up?”

Take into consideration why you wish to handle your meals consumption. Possibly you wish to…

Drop pounds and get more healthy
Higher perceive your consuming habits
See how your weight loss program impacts athletic efficiency
Look higher
Obtain a particular physique fats proportion
Enhance your relationship with meals
Work in your consuming conduct and meals consciousness

Relying on what you hope to perform, one strategy could also be extra acceptable than one other.

But it surely’s unlikely any single technique will preserve working long run.

In actual fact, you’ll get higher outcomes by combining approaches over time. Use the information that follows to find out which technique:

makes probably the most sense to your present targets
feels doable
matches your day-to-day routine

Technique #1: Calorie and macro counting

With calorie counting, you could have a set variety of energy to eat every day based mostly in your peak, weight, age, exercise degree, and targets.

With macro counting, energy are divided between three predominant macronutrients: protein, carbohydrates, and fats. (Alcohol can also be a macronutrient and could possibly be tracked, if desired.) Slightly than counting energy particularly, you retain monitor of what number of grams of every macronutrient you’re consuming. (This not directly tracks energy too, since macronutrients make up the energy in meals and drinks.)

Although calorie and macro counting are barely totally different, they’re related within the sense that they’re each fairly labor-intensive. With both technique, you’d ideally use a meals scale and/or measuring instruments (cups, spoons) to weigh and measure your meals at nearly each meal.

You’d even be looking a calorie database (corresponding to MyFitness Pal or Cronometer) to search out and log the dietary worth of what you’re consuming. Otherwise you would possibly use vitamin labels to manually calculate your consumption.

Why use calorie and macro counting?

Analysis exhibits it really works. Monitoring energy and macronutrients—even with out another dietary counseling—helps individuals lose as much as 5 p.c of their physique weight, finds analysis.2 For somebody who weighs 200 kilos, that’s a 10-pound weight reduction.

It supplies maximal precision. Calorie and macro monitoring aren’t 100 p.c correct, however they’re probably the most exact strategies accessible exterior of a lab. Necessary word: Should you resolve to estimate serving sizes—as a substitute of weighing and measuring your meals—this technique turns into much less correct.

You study calorie counts. By monitoring macros or energy, you turn out to be extra conscious of what number of energy are in every part you eat and drink. Like typical Eight-ounce margarita has 450 energy or that your favourite restaurant salad packs extra energy than two Large Macs.

Calorie and macro counting work effectively for…

Brief-term use. Monitoring your energy or macros for a few weeks can assist you study extra about your present consuming habits. It additionally provides you a greater understanding of acceptable parts. After you have the grasp of it, you may transition handy parts and, ultimately, self-regulation.

Individuals with superior wants. Extra precision is required for extra exact targets. For instance, let’s say somebody must weigh precisely 125 kilos to make their weight class, or be precisely Eight% physique fats for his or her career. Monitoring energy and/or macros is usually the simplest method to get there.

Numbers-oriented of us. Some individuals actually benefit from the means of accumulating calorie and macronutrient knowledge, after which monitoring modifications in weight, physique dimension, and well being markers corresponding to blood strain and ldl cholesterol. They’re additionally normally emotionally indifferent from the numbers—seeing them as info moderately than assigning them “good” or “dangerous” values. For these individuals, monitoring energy or macros can really feel empowering.

Calorie and macro counting are much less very best for…

Most individuals. In our expertise teaching over 100,000 shoppers, the common particular person simply received’t keep on with it for lengthy. That goes for everybody from elite athletes to 60-year outdated grandparents. They don’t wish to hassle with calorie math or meticulously monitoring every part they eat.

And analysis exhibits that even individuals who like this technique are likely to cease utilizing it over time.three,four One seemingly motive: It will possibly take the enjoyment out of consuming. For instance, you is perhaps so apprehensive about hitting your macros you battle to search out pleasure within the social features of consuming. (Like sharing meal with household and buddies.)

What’s extra, for some individuals, this kind of meals monitoring may very well be unhealthy. Preliminary proof suggests associations between calorie and macro monitoring apps and three varieties of disordered consuming.5,6,7

Binge consuming: the overwhelming urge to eat as a lot meals as potential, as quick as potential
Cognitive dietary restraint: feeling such as you’re continuously making an effort to restrict what you eat
Moralizing meals: labeling what you eat as “good” and “dangerous” and attaching your self-worth to your meals selections

These at highest danger: Individuals who are typically overly self-critical, are vulnerable to disordered consuming, or have had an consuming dysfunction up to now.

This isn’t only a analysis discovering; it corresponds to what many coaches, dietitians, and counselors observe of their practices. (Which is the explanation it was studied within the first place.)

That’s why we normally suggest you rely energy and macros for less than brief intervals of time. Or to individuals who want to realize very particular physique composition targets for his or her career.

Technique #2: Hand parts

On this system—developed by Precision Diet—you employ your hand as a customized, transportable portioning software. You’re not truly measuring your meals, however moderately utilizing your hand to gauge portion dimension. And since every hand portion correlates to a sure variety of protein, carbs, or fats, this technique counts energy and macros for you. 

Your palm determines your protein parts.
Your fist determines your vegetable parts.
Your cupped hand determines your carb parts.
Your thumb determines your fats parts.

The way in which it really works is straightforward: Simply enter your intercourse, physique weight, targets, exercise degree, and consuming preferences into the Precision Diet Calculator. The calculator then reveals the beneficial energy and macros for reaching your objective.

Then it converts these numbers to the equal hand parts. So all you need to do is use your fingers to get the beneficial variety of day by day parts. (The Precision Diet Calculator additionally provides you a free customized report and consuming information that will help you get began.)

Why use hand portion monitoring?

It’s handy and simple to know. Your fingers are with you in every single place you go. They’re proportional to your physique and at all times the identical dimension. So that they function a dependable reference level—with out the necessity for measuring cups or a meals scale.

Customization is straightforward. Should you’re not seeing the outcomes you need, all you need to do is modify the variety of parts you’re consuming. As an example, you possibly can take away one cupped hand of carbs and one thumb of fat out of your day by day consumption, and see what occurs.

It’s additionally straightforward to make changes based mostly in your preferences. You possibly can swap a handful of carbs for an additional thumb-sized serving of fat, or vice versa.

Plus, you should use this strategy to comply with any most popular consuming model, whether or not it’s Paleo, keto, Mediterranean, or plant-based.

It’s exact sufficient. For most individuals—even these in search of physique transformation—it’s not essential to meticulously measure or weigh meals.

Our inside analysis exhibits hand parts are 95 p.c as correct as fastidiously weighing, measuring, and monitoring, however with considerably much less time and effort concerned. 

And since calorie databases—the software most individuals use to trace energy and macros—will be off by as a lot as 20 p.c, the 5 p.c distinction right here is negligible for many.Eight

Make no mistake: Hand parts aren’t as correct as macro monitoring. However they’re correct sufficient that will help you constantly monitor your meals consumption, and attain your targets. And that’s what actually issues.

Hand portion monitoring works effectively for…

Individuals with busy, messy, advanced lives. So mainly everybody. In comparison with scales and monitoring apps, hand parts make it far simpler to constantly gauge how a lot you’re consuming.

Most physique composition targets. Except you’re chasing excessive outcomes towards a non-negotiable deadline—as an illustration, you receives a commission for the way your physique seems to be or performs—hand parts can get you the place you wish to go.

Hand parts are much less very best for…

Individuals with probably the most aggressive targets. Skilled physique athletes and fashions might have a extra exact technique. It’s the identical with athletes who want to chop weight or attain a particular physique fats proportion—corresponding to in preparation for a UFC struggle. Remember: These individuals are basically being paid to eat this manner. It’s a part of their job. And that comes with tradeoffs.

Technique #three: Conscious and intuitive consuming

Conscious consuming means taking note of the expertise, emotions, and sensations you could have round consuming. Practices like consuming slowly and consuming till 80 p.c full are part of aware consuming. As a substitute of specializing in consuming sure varieties or quantities of meals, aware consuming teaches you tips on how to regulate your meals consumption by noticing how your physique and thoughts really feel once you eat.

Intuitive consuming is the same system, however it rejects “weight loss program” messaging and tradition. Intuitive consuming wasn’t initially supposed to realize a particular physique composition objective, however moderately to enhance your general relationship with meals.

Each approaches contain studying tips on how to inform whether or not you’re hungry or not, know once you’ve had sufficient, and be comfortable with meals.

Why use aware and intuitive consuming?

These approaches foster a wholesome relationship with meals. By training aware and intuitive consuming, you may enhance your capability to self-regulate. Over time, you’ll take away the coaching wheels of exterior guides—calorie counting, macro counting, and monitoring hand parts—and revel in extra flexibility and freedom, whereas staying on monitor.

Mastering these self-regulatory abilities has additionally been proven to strengthen self-efficacy—the assumption you may attain your targets.9 This may work wonders to your confidence, motivation, and self-assuredness in pursuing your well being targets. (It’s fairly invaluable for on a regular basis life, too.)

The ideas will be utilized anytime, anyplace. It doesn’t matter what meals choices can be found, you may at all times eat slowly and mindfully. Understanding what it feels wish to be hungry, satiated, full, and/or overstuffed is a lifelong ability. These strategies offer you apply.

You study that starvation isn’t an emergency. Once you really feel hungry, it’s widespread to panic and wish to eat no matter you see. However once you begin taking note of your starvation cues, you study that you simply’re completely going to really feel hungry typically. And also you uncover that’s okay.

Nothing dangerous will occur if you happen to don’t eat instantly. You would possibly even discover the sensation passes. Or that you simply truly aren’t all that hungry. It could possibly be you have been craving meals that will help you address ache, disgrace, guilt, or stress. (Sixty-three p.c of our shoppers say emotional consuming is their #1 dietary problem.)

You may additionally understand you’re, the truth is, actually hungry. However by understanding that starvation isn’t an emergency, you’ll have the time and house to make extra considerate meals selections.

Our shoppers constantly report this is among the strongest issues they study in our teaching program. Wish to study extra? Try Conquer your cravings: Break the sinister cycle that makes you overeat.

Conscious and intuitive consuming work effectively for…

Anybody whose predominant objective is to enhance their relationship with meals. These are of us who don’t have weight or physique composition-related targets (no less than not proper now). As a substitute, they only wish to really feel extra at peace with their meals selections.

Individuals utilizing different meals monitoring strategies. (Or are able to transition away from them.) Conscious and intuitive consuming by themselves have a combined monitor document for weight reduction outcomes.10,11,12,13 However since they assist individuals construct elementary consuming abilities they’ll use endlessly, we extremely suggest them.

When aware or intuitive consuming are mixed with a way corresponding to monitoring hand parts, energy, or macros, it’s the most effective of each worlds: You get exterior pointers that will help you turn out to be extra conscious and make higher selections. And also you study to higher self-regulate your consumption by taking note of how meals makes you’re feeling.

What to do subsequent…

Step 1: Begin the place you’re

Decide the strategy that greatest matches your (or your shopper’s) way of life, targets, and preferences. For most individuals, this implies a mixture of strategies.

Use the dietary coaching wheel strategy—calorie counting, macro counting, hand portion monitoring—to learn to:

Higher gauge portion sizes
Construct high quality meals
Optimize your progress

To trace your meals consumption, you’ll want to find out your start line.

You are able to do this by getting into your particulars into the Precision Diet Calculator. This can present the energy, macros, and hand parts to eat to realize your required objective—whether or not you wish to drop a few pounds, acquire weight, or just eat for higher well being.

Then use the targets that correspond to your chosen monitoring technique. That is your baseline. Comply with this strategy as constantly as potential for 2 weeks.

Ideally, mix your meals monitoring efforts with intuitive/aware methods: taking note of your inside cues, consuming slowly, and stopping once you’re about 80 p.c full. (We suggest that, bear in mind?)

Step 2: Monitor and modify

On the subject of monitoring your meals, accuracy is an phantasm.

All monitoring choices—even probably the most cautious calorie counting—are inaccurate to some extent. (See why right here.)

Fortuitously, in terms of meals monitoring, pinpoint accuracy isn’t what actually drives outcomes.

Consistency is what’s most vital. 

Right here’s why: Once you monitor what you eat, no matter which one you select, you’re getting a constant measurement of your meals consumption. So although the calorie counts aren’t 100 p.c correct, you’ve nonetheless established a strong and repeatable baseline.

Then you definitely monitor your progress:

Are you (or your shopper) shedding pounds, gaining weight, or sustaining? 

From right here, you merely use your most popular monitoring technique to regulate your meals consumption, if wanted, to realize your required final result.

This course of occurs irrespective of how correct your meals monitoring technique. As a result of guess what?

There’s no method to exactly predict what number of energy your physique wants every day. Even the most effective calculators solely present an estimate to start out from.

Consider it as an experiment. Should you don’t get the outcomes you need, make small tweaks till you see progress.

Let’s say you wish to drop a few pounds and the Precision Diet Calculator advises you eat:

2,500 energy per day (if you happen to’re counting energy)
200 grams of protein, 200 grams of carbs, and 100 grams of fats per day (if you happen to’re counting macros)
7 palms of protein, 6 fists of greens, 6 handfuls of carbs, and seven thumbs of fat per day (if you happen to’re monitoring hand parts)

However after two weeks, the dimensions hasn’t budged.

Your subsequent transfer? You possibly can scale back your consumption by:

250 energy per day (if you happen to’re counting energy)
30 grams of carbs and 15 grams of fats (if you happen to’re counting macros)
1 handful of carbs and a couple of thumbs of fats (if you happen to’re monitoring hand parts)

(Or, if you happen to’re making an attempt to realize weight as a substitute, you possibly can improve your consumption by these quantities.)

Monitor for an additional two to 4 weeks, and if wanted, modify once more utilizing the identical course of.

Now you’re making modifications utilizing suggestions out of your progress, not in your preliminary calculations. That is the way you optimize your meals consumption to your particular person wants.

Step three: Discover your candy spot

As you attain your targets, you may absolutely transition to self-regulation.

This doesn’t imply you need to overlook about energy or macros or hand parts. In actual fact, you’ll proceed to make use of the abilities you’ve constructed to get up to now.

For instance, you now:

Have a greater sense of what number of energy and macros you’re consuming
Perceive acceptable portion sizes
Have an elevated consciousness of meals high quality

You should still reference your palm when figuring out how a lot protein to place in your plate, however you received’t want to trace it. In essence, you’ve now internalized these exterior guides.

So that you’re now utilizing what you already know to mindfully construct out meals (with out moralizing meals). However you’re solely doing so once you’re bodily hungry. (Except you’re making a acutely aware option to eat one thing when not hungry.) And you then’re consuming these meals slowly, till glad.

But in addition know this: Everytime you wish to make important physique modifications, you could discover it useful—even crucial—to make use of exterior guides once more. The strategies are there for you, if the necessity arises.

And bear in mind: Assume past the meals

Meals is vital, however it’s not the one factor that issues. That’s true even when weight reduction is your objective. A well-rounded program will deal with not simply vitamin, but in addition on:

getting extra high quality sleep
transferring usually
stress administration
enhancing your outlook and mindset

So that you simply (or your shoppers) are thriving in all domains of well being.

As a result of finally, isn’t that the form of deep well being you’re actually after?

Should you’re a coach, otherwise you wish to be…

Studying tips on how to coach shoppers, sufferers, buddies, or members of the family via wholesome consuming and way of life modifications—in a method that matches their way of life, targets, and preferences—is each an artwork and a science.

Should you’d wish to study extra about each, take into account the Precision Diet Stage 1 Certification. The subsequent group kicks off shortly.

What’s all of it about?

The Precision Diet Stage 1 Certification is the world’s most revered vitamin training program. It provides you the information, techniques, and instruments you’ll want to actually perceive how meals influences an individual’s well being and health. Plus the flexibility to show that information right into a thriving teaching apply.

Developed over 15 years, and confirmed with over 100,000 shoppers and sufferers, the Stage 1 curriculum stands alone because the authority on the science of vitamin and the artwork of teaching.

Whether or not you’re already mid-career, or simply beginning out, the Stage 1 Certification is your springboard to a deeper understanding of vitamin, the authority to educate it, and the capability to show what you already know into outcomes.

[Of course, if you’re already a student or graduate of the Level 1 Certification, check out our Level 2 Certification Master Class. It’s an exclusive, year-long mentorship designed for elite professionals looking to master the art of coaching and be part of the top 1% of health and fitness coaches in the world.]

? Add your title to the presale checklist. You’ll save as much as 30% and safe your spot 24 hours earlier than everybody else.

We’ll be opening up spots in our subsequent Precision Diet Stage 1 Certification on Wednesday, April eighth, 2020.

If you wish to discover out extra, we’ve arrange the next presale checklist, which supplies you two benefits.

Pay lower than everybody else. We wish to reward people who find themselves keen to spice up their credentials and are able to decide to getting the training they want. So we’re providing a reduction of as much as 30% off the final value once you join the presale checklist.
Enroll 24 hours earlier than most people and improve your possibilities of getting a spot. We solely open the certification program twice per 12 months. Because of excessive demand, spots in this system are restricted and have traditionally offered out in a matter of hours. However once you join the presale checklist, we’ll provide the alternative to register a full 24 hours earlier than anybody else.

Should you’re prepared for a deeper understanding of vitamin, the authority to educate it, and the capability to show what you already know into outcomes… that is your probability to see what the world’s prime skilled vitamin teaching system can do for you.

References

Click on right here to view the data sources referenced on this article.

Trabulsi, J., Schoeller, D. (2001). Analysis of dietary evaluation devices towards double labeled water, a biomarker of routine consumption. American Journal of Physiology: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 281(5): E891-E899.
Patel, M.L., Hopkins, C.M., Brooks, T.L., Bennett, G. G. (2019). Evaluating self-monitoring methods for weight reduction in a smartphone app: randomized managed trial. Journal of Medical Web Analysis, 7(2).
Turner-McGrievy, G.M., Dunn, C.G., Wilcox, S., Boutte, A.Okay., Hutto, B., Hoover, A., Muth, E. (2019). Defining adherence to cell dietary self-monitoring and assessing monitoring over time: Monitoring no less than two consuming events per day is greatest marke of adherence inside two totally different cell well being randomized weight reduction interventions. Journal of the Academy of Diet and Dietetics, 119(9): 1516-1524.
Carter, M.C., Burley, V.J., Nykjaer, C., Cade, J.E. (2013). Adherence to a smartphone utility for weight in comparison with web site and paper diary: Pilot Randomized Managed Trial. Journal of Medical Web Analysis, 15(four): e32.
Levinson, C.A., Fewell, L., Brosof, L.C. (2017) My Health Pal tracker utilization within the consuming problems. Consuming Habits, 27: 14-16.
Linardon, J., Messer, M. (2019). My health pal utilization in males: Associations with consuming dysfunction signs and psychosocial impairment. Consuming Habits, 33: 13-17.
Simpson, C.C., Mazzeo, S.E. (2017). Calorie counting and health monitoring know-how: Associations with consuming dysfunction symptomatology. Consuming Habits, 25: 89-92.
U.S. Meals and Drug Adminstration (Present as of 9/20/2018). Steerage for Business: Information for Growing and Utilizing Information Bases for Diet Labeling.
Sairanen, E., Tolvanen, A., karhunen, L., Kolehmainen, M., Jarvela-Reijonen, E., Lindroos, S., Peuhkuri, Okay., Korpela, R., Ermes, M., Mattila, E., Lappalainen, R. (2017). Psychological flexibility mediates change in intuitive consuming regulation in acceptance and dedication remedy interventions. Public Well being Diet, 20(9): 1681-1691.
Olson, Okay.L., Emery, C.F. (2015). Mindfulness and weight reduction: a scientific overview. Psychosomatic Drugs, 77(1): 59-67.
Ruffault, A., ,Czernichow, S., Hagger, M.S., Ferrand, M., Erichot, N., Carette, C., Boujut, E., Flahault, C. (2017). The results of mindfulness coaching on weight-loss and health-related behaviours in adults with chubby and weight problems: A scientific overview and meta-analysis. Weight problems Analysis & Medical Observe, 11(5 Suppl 1): 90-111.
Warren, J.M., Smith, N., Ashwell, M. (2017). A structured literature overview on the function of mindfulness, aware consuming and intuitive consuming in altering consuming behaviours: effectiveness and related potential mechanisms. Diet Analysis Evaluations, 30(2): 272-283.
Dunn, C., Haubenreiser, M., Johnson, M., Nordby, Okay., Aggarwal, S., Myer, S., Thomas, C. (2018). Mindfulness approaches and weight reduction, weight upkeep, and weight regain. Present Weight problems Experiences, 7(1): 37-49.

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